List of Perticipants 


Session 1 / Room 1 / No.1

Title: The Effect of Corporate Governance and Ownership Structure on Earnings Management and Underpricing of Philippine Initial Public Offerings

Author(s): Angelo O. Burdeos

Abstract: Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) remain an essential source of funds for private companies that go public. In 2021, 56.8 billion pesos was raised through IPOs in the Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE). Issuers, underwriters, qualified institutional buyers, brokers, and local small investors are interested in the success of an IPO. Issuers want a high offer price during the IPO, while investors wish for a low offer price to make them participate. The underwriters bring the two together to agree to a price acceptable to both parties. This study examines two IPO issues that continue to be debated by finance and accounting scholars in the domain literature: earnings management and underpricing. During an IPO, information asymmetry forces the issuer to signal its quality to the public. Information asymmetry brings down the offer price due to the presence of bad-quality IPO firms. Good quality IPO firms need to signal their quality to the public. The primary signal is their reported earnings and other information in the prospectus. This study examines the level of earnings management and underpricing and the effect of corporate governance and ownership structure variables on them. The paper uses ordinary least square regression analysis to determine the relationships between the response and explanatory variables. The study also uses the interview method among underwriters to know how the IPO process operates in the Philippines. The study finds that IPO firms managed 10.72% of lagged total assets and 9.6% underpricing on average. Board independence and the presence of an audit committee are significantly related to earnings management. In addition, CEO duality, the presence of a foreign lead underwriter, issues underwritten jointly, largest shareholder ownership, ownership retention, group affiliation, gross proceeds, and use of proceeds significantly explain underpricing.


Session 1 / Room 1 / No.2

Title: The Impact of COVID-19 Incident Intensity on the Cultural Adaptation of Asian Multinational Enterprises

Author(s): Li Li

Abstract: The COVID-19 epidemic has had a great impact on enterprises around the world. The business volume of many companies has suddenly decreased, and even some companies went bankrupt because of this "black swan" incident. For dispatched employees, on the one hand, they should not only do a good job in epidemic prevention and control like ordinary employees to reduce the risks caused by COVID-19; on the other hand, they should also urge themselves to adapt to the sudden environment and work as soon as possible to avoid mistakes at work, or put themselves at a disadvantage because they do not achieve the goals of the enterprise.
Therefore, it is very necessary and valuable to study the behavior and attitude of dispatched employees in the context of the epidemic for the current and subsequent management of dispatched employees. This study determines the scale of measurement variables by sorting out the literature on event intensity, cross-cultural adaptation, willingness to stay and job satisfaction. And find the internal connection between variables and put forward the hypothesis of this article accordingly based on the theory of social comparison. Select an Asian multinational enterprise as the research object of this study, conduct a questionnaire survey on its employees who are sent to other Asian countries and other Asian countries to the enterprise, and conduct credibility and regression analysis to test the research hypothesis of the results. At the same time, to make up for the lack of in-depthness of the questionnaire survey results, we conducted semi-structured interviews with the managers of selected multinational enterprises to draw conclusions. Finally, based on these conclusions, we put forward some suggestions for the job satisfaction and retention willingness management of dispatched employees in the context of the epidemic.


Session 1 / Room 1 / No.3

Title: Ethnobotany, resource valuation and market demand of Philippine “mana” cinnamon (C. mindanaense Elm.) in Cebu Island, Philippines

Author(s): Jay Picrdal, Stella Therese R. Avila, Eric A. Remoroze, Joenard Algones

Abstract: The Philippines has 21 species of cinnamon, 16 of which are endemic and mostly used in herbal medicine practices. To date, only Cinnamomum mindanaense, locally known as “mana” or “caui mana” (sweet wood) has been reported as a spice due to its sweet-tasting bark and highly aromatic leaves. The species has a rich cultural history as old as the first circumnavigation of the world, and has been cultivated in Laguna from 1759-1787 to supplement the demand for cinnamon bark in Spain. This forgotten record of the Philippine cinnamon industry is largely unknown to current knowledge because it died a natural death in 1800. To date, the Philippines has slowly explored the possibility of reviving the Philippine cinnamon industry.  To address this industry goal, an island-wide resource and market survey employing a participatory research approach was conducted to assess its use, value and market demand. Results show that mana leaves and bark have been used extensively in cooking pork stew, beef caldereta and goat menudo. Locals use the wood for making charcoal and as housing poles due to its termiticidal properties. Data further show that > 6,000 mature mana trees were concentrated in a few hectares of naturally-grown limestone forest and thrived with little human intervention in the hilly lands of Southern Cebu. Demand of mana is high, but since leaves are only harvested twice a year through coppicing, supply is low and unsustainable. In 1980s, farmers sell leaves at Php 15.00/kg, while currently, leaves are sold at Php35.00/kg. Despite its highly aromatic bark, quill production is rarely practiced due to lack of demand in local market. Understanding local supply-demand chain and the role played by the Philippines in the global cinnamon market are essential in increasing the value of the most aromatic cinnamon species in the Philippines the mana cinnamon.


Session 1 / Room 1 / No.4

Title: Beginning Teacher's Licensure and Results-Based Performance: A Regression Analysis

Author(s): Maria Nancy Quinco-Cadosales, Jole Mar P. Sanchez, Monique E. Cordova, Jewish A. Merin, William Augustro Jr.

Abstract: Passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) is a major requirement for education graduates to be accepted to teach in the Department of Education (DepEd). The holistic preparation of these teachers determine how well they perform in the field.  This study investigates the relationship between the beginning teachers’ performance in the licensure examination and their results-based performance management system rating. The descriptive-correlational research design was used in this study. The data were obtained from 2,680 teachers representing the 17 regions in the Philippines. The beginning teachers with BEEd degree, BSEd degree and DPE obtained an overall satisfactory performance in the licensure examination. Furthermore, they all had a very satisfactory RPMS performance regardless of the degree program they graduated from. Further, the performance in General Education courses, Professional Education courses, and Specialization components predicted the RPMS performance of teachers who graduated from the BSEd degree program. College preparation also has a significant relationship with RPMS performance, indicating that if teachers are well-prepared by the educational institution, they can obtain a high rating in the RPMS. In addition, results suggest that the experience of the teachers in private schools does not determine how well they perform in the field based on RPMS; although public school experience has a significant indirect effect on the RPMS performance of teachers. Finally, findings of this study show that the LET performance of teachers has an effect on the RPMS ratings; hence, licensure exam results can predict teachers’ performance in public schools. The quality of teacher preparation influences the preservice teachers’ performance in the board licensure examination for professional teachers: hence, it is recommended that teacher education institutions intensify their measures in the preparation of the preservice teachers to pass the board licensure examination for professional teachers.


Session 1 / Room 1 / No.5

Title: Measures and practices for digital transformation in SMEs of Japan

Author(s): Yuri Sadoi & Sergei Shaposhnikov

Abstract: Digital transformation is a driving force for global economy as well as for Japan’s growth. Japanese government has adopted a gradual approach to form a digital society and in 2000 enacted the Basic Act on the Formation of an Advanced Information and Telecommunications Network Society for forming an advanced information and telecommunications network society to transform and build a common foundation for a digital society.

However, in Japan, the progress of digital transformation in industries varies depending on the industries and companies. What are the problems to hinder the progress of the digital transformation?

This paper aims to analyze the practices of digital transformation on sustainability of business in Japan and discuss about the problems to hinder the progress especially in SMEs by showing empirical surveys.



Session 1 / Room 2 / No.1

Title: Marriage Immigrants’ Identity Negotiation and Rights to Inclusion in Asian Context

Author(s): Brenda Yaling Chen

Abstract: The formation of marriage immigrant groups in Taiwan can be traced back to the New Southbound Policy promoted by Taiwan in 1994. At that time, there were frequent interactions between native and Southeast Asian women, resulting in an increasing number of international marriages. In the beginning, most of these joint marriages were introduced by intermediaries; the process inevitably included expensive introduction fees. The impression of "buying a wife" made the early foreign spouses or mainland spouses experience a lot of social prejudice, thinking that marriage immigrants from disadvantaged countries are Marrying a Taiwanese with a special purpose. In this study, the researcher conducts surveys and interviews among 30 marriage immigrants and intends to find out how they perceive their identity in their daily lives and everyday interaction with people around them. These immigrants first obtain residence status, and it takes them several years to apply for citizenship. In the meantime they are prone to suffer a structure and power imbalance in the family. How they handle domestic violence or quarrels, or whether they can successfully give birth to children will indirectly affect whether they can obtain citizenship in the future. Foreign spouses handle their relationship cautiously with their Taiwanese husband's family. Objectively, they passively acquire Taiwanese citizenship (being made), but on the other hand, they also proactively (self-making) create an environment to acquire citizenship (Chiu & Yeoh, 2021). In our study we also found Taiwanese people have polarized attitudes towards marriage immigration. On the one hand, they advocate no restrictions due to human rights considerations, but on the other hand, they are quite wary and on guard.

Under the social pressure of a strong culture, transnational immigrants naturally have conflicting feelings about identity, and cultural adaptation is also complicated. If they have the goal of becoming citizens, the situation is even more complicated. Sometimes they feel that they are weak and have low power, and sometimes they show their initiative, especially in raising their children and using their right to vote to show social participation. If their decision is not to naturalize, it is probably because raising their children makes them feel a sense of belonging as Taiwanese citizens and that they are substantial Taiwanese citizens. Taiwan government, to respond to the growth in the number of these marriage immigrants, has established many relevant laws and regulations for effective governance.

Keywords: legal consciousness, identity, naturalization, citizenship, right to inclusion


Session 1 / Room 2 / No.2

Title: Dissemination and Popularization of Philippine Cinnamon to the Local Community Through Science Communication

Author(s): Marchee Picardal, Angielyn M. Pogoy, Genara B. Pacana, Rivicka C. Alda, Janet Remedious C. Bacus, Joje Mar P. Sanchez, Angelito B. Cabanilla, Jr., Lalani C. Dapat and Anbony D Cuanico

Abstract: The Philippine Cinnamon (Cinnamon sp.) is one of the most promising source of non-timber forest products such as cinnamon quill, essential oils and spices. In spite of the economic potential and an increasing national and global demand, a limited documentation of the knowledge and utilization of this plant resource in the country is observed. It resulted to a wide gap in the market-supply chain, specifically among local farmers and entrepreneurs affecting its market valuation and product development. Hence, science communication will serve as catalyst to mainstream this industry. The limited knowledge of the community in areas where the cinnamon species grow abundantly led to the insufficient and unsustainable harvesting and production purposes. Complementary science communication that tailored-fit to the needs and languages of the target audience is a critical step in conveying the important scientific findings to the stakeholders. This study employed participatory research approach and anchored on the science communication framework to raise awareness and disseminate the scientific knowledge to the local community on the cinnamon species in their area. The target audience were the farmers, residents, and MSMEs entrepreneurs. The communication strategy used was through a story featuring a farmer sharing his local knowledge and practices on cinnamon in the area, an elder that utilized the species with its ethnobotanical uses in treating common ailments, and a small-business entrepreneur who has developed several products out from cinnamon. The stories were shared through various media such as social media boosting and traditional community forum and flyers. Using audience analysis through a survey, social boosting received higher engagement, visibility, and reach than the traditional mode of communication but audience expressed appreciation of the variety of materials in different formats and tailored to their dialect Bisaya. Production of strategic communication activities and tools are recommended to promote cinnamon to various stakeholders and ensure resource sustainability.


Session 1 / Room 2 / No.3

Title: Idioms with 'Hand' in Japanese and Bulgarian languages

Author(s): Svetla Ivanova Hasegawa

Abstract: Phraseolo+R2:R32gical expressions play a significant role in each language. They reveal the charm and beauty of the culture and traditions of that country. Language is a real treasure that conveys precious information about that country, its history, customs and people. The subject of my linguistic research is idioms and proverbs in Japanese and Bulgarian languages. In most languages idioms with body parts are prevalent compared to other idioms. Idioms with ‘hand’ are used very often in both languages. We touch things around us with our hands and touch is one of the five senses. Physical contact is important in building new relationships. For example, shaking hands is a friendly gesture that produces oxytocin and makes people trust each other even more.
I have divided all idioms in both languages to three groups: idioms with same meaning and same form, idioms with different meaning and same form, idioms with same meaning and different form.
From the point of view of Semantics, idioms in group 1 reveal the direct meaning of the word ‘hand’.
In group two we find idioms that carry the unique stance of each language. For example, in Japanese ‘to have a long hand’ means to be a thief. But in Bulgarian the same idiom means to be a rich person.
In group three we witness the variety and richness of each language. For example, the idiom meaning ‘to be skillful’ in Japanese is ‘to have a good hand’ and in Bulgarian ‘to have a golden hand’.
By doing research on foreign idioms and proverbs we acquire knowledge about the culture, traditions, customs of those countries. We study the language and at the same time we acquire precious knowledge about the culture. 


Session 1 / Room 2 / No.4

Title: Matters of the HEARTS: Health, Experience of Abuse, Resilience, Technology use,

and Safety of Older Persons

Author(s): Palompon, Daisy, Constantino, Rose, Garcia, Laurence, Cutamora, Jezyl, Gonzaga, Joni Inocencia, Tipon, Lovelyn, Pontillas, Laarne, Caneda, Jake, Castillo, Joana Mariz and Pananganan, Vincent

Abstract: This study determined the HEARTS (Health, Experience of Abuse, Resilience, Technology, and Safety) of older adults and explored correlations with health indicators such as physical function, anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, ability to participate in roles and activities, pain interference and pain intensity. This further explored the moderating and mediating effects of resilience, the experience of abuse, and technology use towards the health of older persons. Health, the experience of abuse, and resilience were measured quantitatively with 161 respondents, 60 years old and above. Findings showed that the health variable which significantly correlated with the experience of abuse is sleep disturbance, while anxiety and fatigue correlated with resilience. The moderating effect of resilience between experience and health only showed a significant effect on anxiety and interference. Experience of abuse showed no significant mediating effect between health and sleep disturbance. Technology use significantly correlated with participation in social roles and activities, pain intensity, and resilience, however, its mediating effect between resilience and health was shown in anxiety as one of the health indicators. Health indicators in older persons have selective responses to the effects of experiences of abuse and resilience.
Keywords: Older Persons; Health; Experience of Abuse; Resilience; Technology use; Safety


Session 1 / Room 2 / No.5

Title: Construction of Fourier Series Expansion of Apostol-Frobenius-Type Tangent and Genocchi Polynomials of Higher-order

Author(s): Roerto. Corcino

Abstract: There are numerous well-known special functions, numbers, and polynomials, such the Bernoulli, Tangent, and Genocchi numbers and polynomials, and derivative polynomials, that are well studied in the current literature due to their broad applications ranging from number theory and combinatorics to other fields of applied mathematics. In the literature, other variants and extensions of these functions, numbers, and polynomials have appeared. Some versions have been created by combining two or three special functions, integers, or polynomials. Poly-Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, for example, were created by combining the notions of polylogarithm and Bernoulli numbers and polynomials.
The principles of Apostol, Frobenius, Genocchi, and Euler polynomials were combined to create the Apostol-Genocchi polynomials, Frobenius-Euler polynomials, Frobenius-Genocchi polynomials, and Apostol-Frobenius-type poly-Genocchi polynomials. Another intriguing combination of special polynomials may be created by combining the principles of Apostol and Frobenius polynomials with Tangent, Bernoulli, and Genocchi polynomials, which will be the topic direction of this paper. This will be carried out using the Fourier series expansion method.
Fourier series is widely known as an expansion of a periodic function f(x) in terms of an infinite sum of sine and cosine functions. It makes use of the orthogonality relationships of the sine and cosine functions. The Fourier expansion of several well-known polynomials has recently piqued the curiosity of mathematicians. Using the Lipschitz summation formula, Lou (2009) derived the Fourier expansions and integral representation for Genocchi polynomials. Araci-Acikgoz (2018) made a significant finding about the Fourier expansion of the Apostol Frobenius-Euler and Genocchi polynomials.
In this study, the Fourier series expansions of the Apostol-Frobenius type of Tangent and Genocchi polynomials of higher order are derived using the Cauchy residue theorem. Some novel and intriguing results are obtained by applying the Fourier series expansion of these types of polynomials.



Session 1 / Room 3 / No.1

Title: 日本語母語話者同士の会話に現れる共感表明発話


Author(s): Wu, Chinfang

Abstract: 私たちは、日常生活のいろいろな場面においてポジティブ及びネガティブ両方の評価を行っている。本研究では、日本語の大規模な自発音声データベースである国立国語研究所の「日本語話し言葉コーパス」(英名はCorpus of Spontaneous Japanese;これを省略してCSJと呼ぶ)を用いて分析を行う。その中の「自由対話」における不一致を表明する際の緩和措置(ネガティブな評価)を選び、相手にどのような「行為」を働きかけているかを明らかにすることを目的とする。聞き手に認めてもらえるように語り手が語る際の会話の構成、つまり聞き手の共感的な反応の観点から解明し、共感を示す前の発話、共感の示し方や日本語会話の構造を明らかにする。日本語母語話者間の言語表現特徴、コミュニケーションにおけるストラテジーを探り、その使用に潜む話し手の心理について検証した。


Session 1 / Room 3 / No.2

Title: The concept of time in Normal Accident Theory

Author(s): Yuko Sugiura

Abstract: 組織事故研究における、対立する2つの理論―ノーマル・アクシデント理論(Normal Accident Theory:以下NATと略記)と高信頼性理論(High Reliability Theory)―について、Shrivastava, Sonpar and Pazzagliaは、時間次元を導入することにより、両者の長年の議論は解決できるという。彼らは、時間次元を導入しNATを再構築すべきだと主張している。しかしながら、NATの提唱者であるC.Perrowは、時間次元の導入に異議を唱えている。本報告では、NATにおける時間の概念を精査することで、Shrivastava, Sonpar and Pazzagliaの提案の問題点を指摘し、なぜ時間次元を導入すべきではないのかについて明らかにする。


Session 1 / Room 3 / No.3

Title: Regional alliances and geoeconomic factors in the semiconductor industry in Taiwan & Japan

Author(s): Lih-Ren Li, Kuan Ju Lin, Wu Chia Chen, Yuri Sadoi

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine Taiwan's technological strength and industrial innovation from regional alliances and geo-economic perspective through the history of its development and current global situation. How has Taiwan succeeded in advancing its semiconductors, science and technology and industry over the decades? How the regional alliances of Taiwan and Japan contributed to the semiconductor industry in the past and the future? This paper explores these core questions and Taiwan's approach to foreign and strategic geopolitical policy through the regional industrial network center of production processes in relation to the US, EU, China and Japan. In addition, the newly established Japanese semiconductor company, Rapidus, will be analyzed in comparison with the Taiwan’s approach.

It is now becoming increasingly clear that not only does the nature of economic organization raise important theoretical and practical questions about the basis of international competition, but also that the impact of Taiwan's geo-economic location is largely determined by the relative shifts in the balance of economic power.


Session 1 / Room 3 / No.4

Title: Current Status and Challenges in Supporting Second Careers in Nursing in Japan:

Focusing on Support by Nursing Professional Associations

Author(s): Shizuho Hirabayashi 

Abstract: The percentage of nurses over 50 years old in the employed nursing workforce in Japan has been gradually increasing and exceeded 30% (2018). If this generation of nurses becomes potential nurses after retirement, there is a concern about the quantitative shortage of nurses and a decline in the quality of nursing care, making second career support an urgent issue. In the previous literature, there are some studies on the needs of nurses and employers and on careers within organizations, but there are few studies on second career support beyond the organization. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the current status of second career support and future issues for support. We conducted a quantitative and qualitative analysis of publicly available information on official websites of nursing professional associations to investigate the status of their efforts.As a result, it was found that efforts by nursing professional associations to support second careers (1) correlated with the number of members of nursing professional associations, (2) training related to second careers was targeted at [nursing professionals] and [recruiting facilities], but the latter were few, and (3) support systems were divided into "support for employment" and "coordination of use as a resource," with the latter accounting for a large percentage. The latter is the largest percentage of the total. The results also suggest that it is desirable for nursing professional associations to take the lead in providing support for second careers, and to create a system through cooperation among associations based on the characteristics of the nursing profession and the workplace where nurses work, as well as regional characteristics.


Session 1 / Room 3 / No.5

Title: 2011年からの台日産業連携架け橋プロジェクトの推進現状と実績(Current status and achievements of the Taiwan-Japan Industrial Alliance Bridge Project since 2011

Author(s): Kuan Ju,Lin 林冠汝

Abstract: 2011年以降、台日政府双方は、台日産業連携・交流を促進している。台湾政府は2011年11月に「台日産業連携架け橋プロジェクト」を立案し、翌2012年11月に日本と「日台産業連携架け橋プロジェクトの協力強化に関する覚書(MOU)」を提携した。2011年の3.11地震以降、台湾と日本双方の交流も盛んになってきた。本研究は「2011年から推進している日台産業連携架け橋プロジェクトの推進現状と実績」をテーマとして、台湾と日本双方が台日産業連携政策を促進している現状と成果、課題と発展、日本企業の台日産業連携に対する視点、COVID-19 の台日産業連携に与える影響と対応策などを把握することにした。




Session 2 / Room 1 / No.1

Title: Artificial Intelligence and Taiwan semiconductor industryRoerto. Corcino

Author(s): Wu Chia Chen

Abstract: After China–United States trade war escalated through 2019, the semiconductor chip become a very important resource of this age in many ways. With the development of technology, an AI (artificial intelligence) Chip- the smarter semiconductor was invented in 2021. Now, AI technology and the fabrication method of AI chips become the focus of the world.
For the development of AI technology, The AI chat service ChatGPT announced by the US AI company “Open AI” attracted worldwide attention at the end of 2022, ChatGPT, The AI service which can have a natural conversation like a human being was rolled out. After that, ChatGPT users Exceeded 300 million people in just three months. For the development of AI Chip. The advance of AI technology is Not only related to the Arms industry and the drone industry but also to the Electronic industry.
  A breakthrough in AI technology depends on the advance of Semiconductor Wafer Processing. However, NVIDIA – the software and fabless company that became an American multinational technology company, set the foundation with the biggest semiconductor manufacturing company in the world TSMC (Taiwanese semiconductor contract manufacturing company) for next-generation chip manufacturing in March 2022. Precisely because of it, more people realize the AI Chip is significant.
  This paper summarizes Turing tests, machine learning, deep learning, and the history of AI services and talks about the American AI service company by case study. Finally, by explaining the connection between AI services and the AI chip business of the semiconductor industry, we discuss the state of Taiwan’s semiconductor industry.


Session 2 / Room 1 / No.2

Title: Filipino Teachers’ Lived Experience on Global Issues in Education while Teaching Abroad

Author(s): Angeline M. Pogoy, Naila Y. Beltran, Nore m ay Perez, Roche E. Ocampo & Angelito B. Cabanilla Jr.

Abstract: This descriptive phenomenological study aimed to explore the Filipino teachers’ lived experience on the global issues in education while teaching in Cambodia. Twelve (12) Filipino teachers were purposively chosen and were included via inclusion and exclusion criteria. A semi-structured interview guide questions was used to gather data via individual interviews, focus group discussions (FGD), validated open-ended online survey, and observations from the Q&A portion of the Developing Global Filipino Project webinar series. Bracketing was also considered to limit the researchers’ biases in the study. Colaizzi’s seven-step thematic data analysis was used to analyze the participants’ responses. Research rigor and ethical considerations were observed in the conduct of the study. A total of three hundred thirty-four (334) significant statements were extracted, and ninety-one (91) meanings were formulated from the gathered data. Three (3) themes and nine (9) sub-themes emerged in the study. The study revealed that teachers were experiencing the global issues in education such language barrier, cultural differences, global awareness and pedagogical concerns. The teachers faced the issues and challenges with the Filipino sense of values and culture, and their personal and professional qualities that made them competent and recognized in their job abroad. It is recommended that the Philippine government shall provide continuous professional development programs for teaching licenses, diplomas in professional education for non-education graduates, and health insurance to respond to their needs in working abroad.
Keywords: global issues, descriptive phenomenology, Filipino teachers, teaching abroad


Session 2 / Room 1 / No.3

Title: Lived Experience of School Leaders in Supervising during Remote Teaching

Author(s): Helen B. Boholano

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has created significant obstacles for schools, particularly in the transition to remote teaching. The responsibility of school leaders in overseeing during remote teaching has become vital in ensuring that teaching and learning continue properly. This research analyzes the lived experience of school leaders in supervising during remote teaching, with the objective of understanding the obstacles they face and identifying strategies to support them. Through a qualitative approach, data was acquired through interviews with school leaders, and thematic analysis was undertaken. The results found that school administrators faced issues such as navigating uncertainty, supporting teachers' emotional well-being, Building Resilience and ensuring access to resources for remote teaching. Strategies used by school leaders included regular communication and feedback, the use of technology for support and training, and providing additional support to struggling students. The findings provide valuable insights into the challenges and opportunities of remote teaching, and how we can support our school leaders to ensure that all students receive the best possible education.


Session 2 / Room 1 / No.4

Title: The Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Functioning of the Wholesale Electricity Spot Market (WESM) in the Philippines

Author(s): Julius P. Relampagos

Abstract: The Wholesale Electricity Spot Market is the hub for trading electricity as a non-storable tradeable commodity.  It is an innovative solution to market clearing and real-time electricity pricing in a deregulated market.  In the Philippines, its creation is prescribed in the Electric Power Industry Reform Act (EPIRA).   The policy prescriptions in the EPIRA are intended to create an economic landscape that supports long-term sustainability of power industry.
The Philippine government mandated the implementation of the COVID-19 community quarantines to stem the spread of the virus.  These quarantines introduced opportunities to effect behavioral changes that have implications on the power industry in the long term.  Behavioral changes have evolved due to restrictions in movement and interaction such as sheltering in place, social distancing, and reductions in work-related travel in terms of both commuting and other forms of transportation. Companies have implemented new business models and practices that reinforce the need for isolation and separation and some job tasks are being performed on a distributed—often at home–basis. These opportunities, which are preferable from a cost and convenience perspective over the longer term, are likely to bring profound changes in the way energy is used and produced in the economy.
  This paper analyzes the impacts of the community quarantines on electricity demand among WESM participants and the market risks introduced by these quarantines in the functioning of a deregulated electricity market.  Using the market data of the Philippine Electricity Market Corporation, the operator of the WESM, this paper investigates the stochastic properties of electricity demand as they affect the efficient functioning of a deregulated electricity market in the presence of policy interventions and external shocks brought about by natural calamities.  The paper discusses the long-term sustainability challenges of power industry to meet the growing demand in the country.     


Session 2 / Room 1 / No.5

Title: An Existentialism study of "The Song of Cha-Tian Mountain"

Author(s): Chien Hung-Chun

Abstract: After the World War Ⅱ, the author not only faced the absurd situation of the Kuomintang dictatorship, but also received the harshest accusations of Taiwan independence in the 1970s. Under this, Zhong Zhaozheng created " The Song of Cha-Tian Mountain " to express the horror and nothingness of being hunted in the inner world, and in the context of the Pacific War in the novel, it shows that the protagonist returns to a strange hometown, and the young people, especially the homeland, do not understand the protagonist's sense of resistance at all. Therefore, the novel reflects the absurd situation of the author Zhong Zhaozheng throughout the post-war period.
The theme of flight in the work actually reflects the author's escape. But regardless of the author and the protagonist in the novel, although they have experienced the sense of nothingness, loneliness, and absurdity in the escape, the escape itself is also a kind of resistance, and the protagonist is constantly exercising himself, overcoming all kinds of mental and physical pain, and finally truly uniting with the mountains and rivers of his hometown to become a more courageous and strong individual.
And the Cha-Tian Mountain symbolizes Mount Xerxifus, becoming a place for the protagonist to exercise himself and resist the absurd. The author is also a fire thief, that is, the Taiwan spirit, the Taiwan consciousness, the consciousness of resistance. Zhong Zhaozheng turned his brushstrokes to Taiwan's Japanese colonial history by escaping from reality, but used the connotation of the Japanese spirit as the spiritual basis for resistance, which is the contradiction and conflict of Taiwan's historical situation even more absurd. These are precisely the contents of existential expression, and they are also existential thinking with Taiwanese characteristics.



Session 2 / Room 2 / No.1

Title: Transition of IT Human Resource Development in Myanmar

Author(s): Toshiyuki Sadoi, Win Zaw, Yuri Sadoi

Abstract: This paper aims to analyses the status quo of IT engineers in Myanmar and human resource development practices. This paper is consisting of 5 parts, followed by introduction, theoretical flamework first point out the difficult factors in Myanmar. Then, skilled migration and the Japan’s situation are discussed. Next, IT engineering knowledge and performance evaluation are summarized. Then, while the public universities are in difficult situation, the rise of private institutes are increasing and playing an important role for IT education. The case of private institute are studied and discussed the role in IT education in Myanmar.


Session 2 / Room 2 / No.2

Title: Success Factors for Business Incubation in Japan: Case Studies of Vietnamese Entrepreneurship"

Author(s): Prof. Nguyen Manh Quan, Nguyen Trong Hieu, and Yuri Sadoi

Abstract: Starting a new business is risky. Most new businesses fail within the first decade. There are many reasons for failure. The case studies of eight successful new SMEs in Vietnam presented below show that these enterprises hardly face them. Related to the policy to start-ups, the lessons learned is to take advantage of the opportunity of the policy of exporting labor abroad and/or to Japan. BIJ (Business Incubation in Japan) could be the potential model.


Session 2 / Room 2 / No.3

Title: Returns to Education in Malaysia Look East Policy: Preliminary findings and institutions

Author(s): Wan Noruddin Rasol & Nurulhuda Mohd Satar





Session 2 / Room 2 / No.4

Title: Assessing social entrepreneurial intentions of micro-entrepreneurs in Cebu, Philippines

Author(s): Lauro R. Silapan, Jr. and Melanie B. De Ocampo

Abstract: Social entrepreneurship is an entrepreneurial process of opportunity recognition, resource assembly, and exploitation geared toward the creation of social value with the discipline of a business enterprise. The term social entrepreneurship may be applied in the profit, non-profit, or even in the public sector. While the entrepreneur operates the social enterprise with a profit motive, the purpose of very its existence is to address a social or environmental issue. This study explores the influence of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on intention of transforming a business enterprise to a social enterprise among selected micro-entrepreneurs in Cebu, Philippines. The 60 research respondents were micro-entrepreneurs currently being served by a micro-finance company in Cebu. Ninety-two percent are female entrepreneurs with loans amounting to P 30,000 to 80,000. The average age of the respondents is 47 years. The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS SEM). The findings show strong motivation and intention to transform business into a social enterprise. Attitude has significant moderate correlation (r = 0.692, p = 0.000) with intention while subjective norm and perceived behavioral control variables have significant strong correlation with intention (r = 0.841, p = 0.000 and r = 0.721, p = 0.000, respectively). The significant positive correlation results and strong explanatory power (adjusted R2 = 0.748) support the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). As predictors, subjective norm (β = 0.420, p = 0.005) had the highest contribution to the variance of intention, followed by perceived behavioral control (β = 0.399, p = 0.002), and attitude (β = 0.109, p = 0.391). The findings imply the need to provide opportunities for the entrepreneurs to build competencies on social value creation aside from economic value creation.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship, theory of planned behavior, micro-finance, PLS-SEM


Session 2 / Room 2 / No.5

Title: HRD in Myanmar Engineers working in Japan

Author(s): Than Than Aung, Yuri Sadoi

Abstract: Research Objectives of this paper is, focusing on Myanmar engineers working in Japanese manufacturing and IT companies, to investigate and analyze the actual situation of human resource development in Myanmar and education and training in Japan, and examine methods for human resource development that are beneficial and sustainable for both parties.

For this research, first, this paper analyses Myanmar engineers in Myanmar, who are the candidates’ engineers working in Japan. Second, this paper will analysis the HRD and working situation of those Myanmar engineers after getting engineering jobs in Japan. From the viewpoint of technology transfer and human resource development, it is expected that those Myanmar engineers will be trained from a long-term perspective.

However, the content, field, and method of education and training in the sending country and in the receiving Japanese company might not directly effective and different which might necessarily lead to effective human resource development. In addition, in terms of long-term development, the reality is that the ability and willingness to endure education and training do not always match the requirements of the Japanese side, making it difficult to achieve sustainable human resource development.


Session 2 / Room 3 / No.1

Title: The America Cold War Work in Xinjiang and Tibet in China after the World War II

Author(s): Hsiung-Shen Jung

Abstract: The Cold War between the America and the Soviet, which took shape before the end of World War II (WWII), became more obvious and intense after WWII. The main battlefield of the US-Soviet Cold War in Asia was in China, and the America also actively launched the Cold War in China's border areas. The American Cold War work in Xinjiang was mainly to monitor Soviet atomic bomb production. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China(PRC), the America shifted the focus of the Cold War to Tibet, which the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) did not fully control, and secretly supported Tibet Independence Movement. This action continued until the early 1970s. Later, under the political consideration of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the America  and China, the America’s support for Xinjiang and Tibet was transformed into human rights support, and the Xinjiang and Tibet issues were regarded as a card of the American diplomacy with China.


Session 2 / Room 3 / No.2

Title: The U.S.-Japan Alliance and Taiwan

Author(s): Yuichi Manda

Abstract:  The question of whether China would use force to bring Taiwan under its control and how the United States should deter and respond to Chinese aggression has emerged as a central concern for policymakers in the countries concerned. This is due to growing concerns about China's capabilities and intentions, as well as a growing realization that a Chinese conquest of Taiwan would have serious consequences for the United States, its allies and partners in the Indo-Pacific region, and the international order. Taiwan is located at the center of the first island chain that runs from the Japanese archipelago through Taiwan, the Philippines, and Borneo, effectively containing the People's Liberation Army (PLA). By bringing Taiwan under its control and using it as a base for an increasingly capable military, China can easily threaten its U.S. treaty allies, Japan and the Philippines; the PLA can also exert its power beyond the First Island Line, allowing it to more easily monitor and disrupt U.S. military movements.
  China's rapid military modernization, the United States' failure to deal realistically with the changing security environment and to invest wisely in addressing China's challenges, Taiwan's neglect of its own defense, and Japan's long-standing restraint in defense spending and posture have all contributed to a decline in deterrence in the Taiwan Strait. These developments, combined with a more bold and assertive Chinese foreign policy, have raised the prospect that China may be tempted to use force to absorb Taiwan into the People's Republic of China.
  To prevent a war that would be catastrophic for the United States, Japan, Taiwan, and China, the United States and Japan must urgently strengthen their coordination and preparedness for a Taiwan conflict. Urgently developing and deploying the capabilities needed to prevent a Chinese invasion of Taiwan and to respond to a Chinese attack should be a top priority for the U.S.-Japan alliance and should energize all conversations between the U.S. and Japanese national security leadership.


Session 2 / Room 3 / No.3

Title: Analysis of the Use of Smart Hotel Based on Consumer Behavior Theory

Author(s): Hsin-Ju Wang 王昕茹

Abstract: Technology is widely used in our daily life, and it can be used to effectively manage hotels and provide consumers with new accommodation experiences. The service industry is very important in Japan and Taiwan. However, both Japan and Taiwan are affected by labor shortages and the coronavirus. Therefore, the service industry has also started to introduce robots, and smart technology can solve the problem of labor shortage and avoid human contact.
But do smart hotels meet consumer needs? What are the reasons why consumers choose smart hotels? Is it acceptable for consumers to replace human services with robots? What kind of accommodation experience do consumers want? The author analyzes consumer perceptions of smart hotels from the perspective of consumer accommodation needs.
Based on Davis' technology acceptance and Schmitt's theory of customer experience, we investigate the use of smart services in smart hotels in Japan and Taiwan. A total of 220 questionnaires were collected in Japan and Taiwan. From the analysis results, it was found that "Perceived usefulness", "Perceived ease of use", " SENSE ", and " FEEL " had a positive effect on Attitude. However, " THINK " did not affect Attitude. " Attitude " influences "Intention to use".
Finally, along with consideration of the hotel's customer journey, the author explains what services the hotel offers and how they meet consumer expectations. Finally, the author organizes the relationship between smart services and consumer goods.
The contribution of this study is to understand the degree of consumer acceptance of new smart technologies in the hotel market, and to inform the introduction of smart new technologies for future hoteliers and research.


Session 2 / Room 3 / No.4

Title: Egyptian challenge to overcome the curse of natural resources

Author(s): Mieko Okamuro

Abstract: The term of resource curse refers to a paradox situation in which resource rich developing countries rather fail to show their economic performance than those without resources.
The author’s previous study found Egypt was successful to manage the adverse impact of the COVID-19 on its economy as of 2021. The GDP growth rapidly rebounded to 6.6% in FY21/22. The growth is led by the telecommunications, construction and the gas mining industry while the manufacturing industry is still struggle with soaring raw material prices and supply chain disruptions.
The economic structure of resource-rich developing countries may tend to delay their participation in GVCs, and even if they did participate, it is difficult to break away from their participation structure, which is dependent on primary commodities.Furthermore, the tendency of the recovery of world economy from the Covid-19 and the uncertainty derived from the energy crisis brought by Russian invasion to Ukraine, rather tend to force those countries to seek resource rent.
Egypt has the large population topped 100 million in 2020 and expects to be in the period of demographic dividend soon. The industrial structure will be needed to absorb abundant labor force.
This paper will analyze the effectiveness of participation in GVCs in economic development and the challenges of resource-dependent economies, using the Egyptian economy as an example.


Session 2 / Room 3 / No.5

Title: 台湾嘉義市の創造都市戦略を用いた地方再生の可能性


Author(s): Lin, Chien-Yu

Abstract: 指導教授:李嗣堯、中野 桂
 先行研究を踏まえ、台湾嘉義市や日本金沢市の創造都市を促進するための取組を「創造の場」、「文化&芸術施策」、「市民、NPO との協働」という三つ の側面に焦点を当て、分析や比較を行なった。その結果から、嘉義市現在の 課題を明らかにし、台湾嘉義市の創造都市実現の可能性や展開方法について提言を行なった。



Session 3 / Room 1 / No.1

Title: A Japanese Religious Worldview in the First Half of the 20th Century:

As a Product of a Syncretic Way of Religious Thinking

Author(s): Tomoko Kato

Abstract: During the pre-World War II period, Anti-Semitic speeches and publications flourished in Japan, according to which the Jews were believed to act behind Japan’s adversary countries. Such claim surely played a key role to set a path for Japan to follow towards the military conflicts.
The Anti-Semitic Japanese encouraged their fellow citizens to be spiritually armed with a religious worldview: it was a divine duty for Japan to win the battle against the Jews. Similar ideas were popular among some people in other nations as well including Germany and America. To them, it was the divine-given mission to solve the Jewish-related issues.
The Japanese traditional way of incorporating foreignness, spiritually or materially, is the syncretism, as an example of which (a syncretistic religiosity) is portrayed in Mullins (1998). In this paper, the author argues the Anti-Semitic religious worldview popular in Japan during the first half of the 20th century was also a product of such syncretic way of thinking, ideas being originally brought from other countries.
The research method of this paper is literature study, using some of the major Anti-Semitic publications in Japan during the 1930s and the 40s as research resources.
The religious worldview probably blindfolded the Japanese; so, they were unable to see the reality. It was an absolute regret that Japan enlarged the conflicts in China and declared the war against Britain and the USA. To many of us, religions are our spiritual support especially during and after big disasters like wars and pandemics. Religions can be double-edged swords, however, morally elevating society but also leading it to destruction. It is important, therefore, for us to stay capable to objectively discuss what our beliefs would bring to us and where they would lead us to, however deeply faithful we may be to our own religions.


Session 3 / Room 1 / No.2

Title: Study on the Three Foreign Economic and Trade Wars launched by the

America after World War II

─US-Soviet Economic War, US-Japan Trade Friction War, US-China Trade War─

Author(s): Hsiung-Shen Jung

Abstract:  The America launched an economic and trade war against the Soviet in the 1980s, when the America and the Soviet had confronted the America and the Soviet militarily and politically for nearly 40 years. On the surface, it looks like an economic and trade war, but in fact the America is fighting it from three aspects: the political, military, and economics. In the end, it not only dragged down the economy of the Soviet, but also indirectly caused the collapse of the Soviet. Although Japan is an ally of the America, the "US-Japan trade friction" in the 1980s became an opportunity for the America to launch an economic and trade war against Japan. As a result, a "bubble economy" occurred in Japan, and eventually the bubble burst, leaving the Japanese economy in a recession for a long time. The America used the long-term trade imbalance between the America and China as a pretext, triggering the "U.S.-China trade war".But in fact, because China, whose overall strength is constantly increasing, is gradually posing a threat to the America, the America has designated China as the next target to strike. The America seems to want to contain China from the political, military, and economic aspects, just as it did with the Soviet. However, because the economic and trade relationship between China and the America is very close and interconnected, the America must consider whether measures against China will also affect the America itself.


Session 3 / Room 1 / No.3

Title: Engaging in the Community Extension Service During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Author(s): Angelito Cabanilla Jr.

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various aspects of life, including education and community service. This study sheds light on the experiences of faculty extensionists who continued their community extension services during the pandemic. The results revealed that these extensionists faced several challenges, including the need to change their modalities of extension services, adhering to health and safety protocols, communication difficulties, unavailability of participants, task overload, financial constraints, and monitoring and evaluation. However, despite these challenges, some extensionists were able to achieve gains and accomplishments during the pandemic. The study highlights the importance of providing appropriate support and resources to the faculty extensionists to ensure their effectiveness and well-being. Institutions must monitor the extensionists' activities carefully, provide them with the necessary resources and training, and offer emotional support to prevent negative consequences. Additionally, institutions must consider these challenges and the lessons learned from the pandemic when developing and implementing extension programs in the future. This study has significant implications for the extension services sector, providing insights into the challenges extensionists face during pandemics and other crises. By addressing these challenges, institutions can improve their extension programs and better serve the communities they aim to help. Furthermore, the study contributes to the literature on COVID-19's impact on higher education, specifically community extension services.


Session 3 / Room 1 / No.4




Author(s): Bragat, Chris Lawrence Y., Cotanda, Vincent Paul G. Jorolan, Kiana F., Langanlangan, Abegail R. Matero, Challoner A.

Abstract: Presently, worsening climate change conditions put environmental, social, and governance sustainability at the forefront of corporate activities. Thus, companies' sustainability performance and disclosures were observed to obtain lower debt costs, inspiring the research, which focused on extending the period and countries included. Further, it looked into different proxies used for the Cost of debt and employed the ratio of interest expense to total debt and credit ratings. The study collected two datasets covering non-financial, publicly listed companies from sensitive industries in the Asia Pacific Region for 2021 and 2004-2021. The statistical tests conducted are six classical assumptions of the Ordinary Least Squares regression model, Ramsey's Regression Specification Test, One-Sided T-test, and Koenker's variation of the Breusch-Pagan test for heteroskedasticity. After data treatment and analysis, findings are contingent on the hypothesis revealing that Credit Ratings are significantly and positively related to Social pillars in the 1-Year dataset. Moreover, Interest Expense to Debt Ratio is significantly and negatively related to ESG Composite Score for the 1-Year and 18-Year datasets. The consistent findings about the negative correlation between the Cost of debt and ESG imply that firms in sensitive industries with high ESG sustainability are rewarded with a lower cost of debt. Alternatively, higher ESG scores imply a lower risk of controversies, better governance, and a sustainable business model, resulting in higher credit ratings. This research recommends the utilization of multiple data sources. Future researchers can also explore the causal relationship between the Cost of debt and ESG sustainability using other econometric techniques.


Session 3 / Room 1 / No.5

Title: A Study on the Career Paths of High School Students Who Think "It is Financially Difficult to Go on to Higher Education" ―Implications for POST COVID-19―

Author(s): Ryo KONISHI, Takaya KATO, HyeSooK PARK, and Norihiro NISHIMURA

Abstract: This study is based on individual data from the "Survey on High School Students' Life and Career Paths" (conducted from March to early April 2019) answered by high school seniors (1014 students) in the "Parent and Child Survey on Children's Life and Learning" conducted by Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo and Benesse Education Research and Development Institute, we will clarify who made it possible for high school students who answered that it was financially difficult for them to pursue higher education.
The hypotheses are that "high school students who are employed without going on to higher education" or "high school students whose parents are not college graduates" think that "it is financially difficult to go on to higher education" and that "high school students with high grades, college graduates of their parents, or those in "regular courses" among those who think that "it is financially difficult to go on to higher education" are going on to higher education. The results of the multiple regression analysis proved all of the above.
It is believed that COVID-19 infection affected some high school students' expected career paths after graduation. Based on the results of this study, we would like to present academic and practical implications for POST COVID-19 era by investigating high school students who chose to go on to higher education even though it was "financially difficult" .
Key words: Educational disparity, College enrollment disparity, Quantitative survey